Wednesday, May 20, 2020

The Impact Of Technology On The Classroom Essay - 1586 Words

From chalkboards, to overhead projectors, to calculators, and now to tablets and personal computers, the evolution of technology in education has reached an all-time high. Back to school shopping lists now require the purchase of various technologies and their accessories in place of the paper and pencils of past generations.. Technology is becoming crucial in society, it is to the point where people are hooked to their smartphones, unable to part with them even for just a hour long class. Can this addiction to technology be positively brought into the classroom? To what extent does technology become harmful to students’ educations? To answer these questions one must consider the benefits of technology, search for solutions to the minor drawbacks regarding educational technology, and find a perfect balance to assure success in the classroom. Before venturing into the discussion of whether or not technology is a useful tool in education, we must define what is meant by â€Å"informative technology† or â€Å"educational technology†. In the document â€Å"Will New Teachers Be Prepared To Teach in a Digital Age? A National Survey on Information Technology in Teacher Education†, written by David Moursund and Talbot Bielefeldt, â€Å"informative technology† is defined as â€Å"... computer hardware and software, the networks that tie computers together, and a host of devices that convert information (text, images, sounds, motion) into common digital formats. However, information technology is not justShow MoreRelatedTechnology And Its Impact On The Classroom1571 Words   |  7 PagesTechnology in the school has become an increasingly challenging and somewhat disruptive aspect in today’s educational system. In order to maintain what is considered the status quo, schools have focused their e nergy and resources on banning cell phones, wireless Internet and blocking social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter in schools. However, as technology continues to grow in our society outside of the school, many believe that effectively involving these technologies into the classroomRead MoreTechnology And Its Impact On The Classroom1277 Words   |  6 Pages Technology in Classroom Ali Boholaiga Kathrine Barrett ELI 084 Technology in Classroom Technology is all over our minds and concerns whether in regard to social impact, dependency or its use at educational institutions. It is currently the most debated issue in our modern society. Technology, it is believed, will become necessary for our survival in the future. It is the agent who will preserve the human race. The use of technology in classrooms is one example thatRead MoreTechnology And Its Impact On The Classroom1313 Words   |  6 PagesTechnology in the Classroom In our progressive society, we are all aware of the development of technology and the effect it has had on daily lives. People use technology as a way to communicate with each other, a form of entertainment, or as a tool to give them instant information at all times. Technology has a significant influence on many different parts of society. Concerning education, certain electronic devices such as computers, smart boards, and tablets assist the learning process for studentsRead MoreTechnology And Its Impact On The Classroom1601 Words   |  7 Pagespast decade, technology has transformed society and has changed many aspects of daily living. Presently, the world consists of quickly advancing technology and people competing all around the world to be considered the best. Many educators argue that the only way to continue to have control within the classroom and to have students be successful within the classroom is to properly integrate technology into the classroom. Currently, the p roblem in the education system is that technology is often difficultRead MoreThe Impact Of Technology On The Classroom2298 Words   |  10 Pagesis technology in the classroom. Per the Merriam-Webster dictionary, technology is defined as â€Å"a manner of accomplishing a task especially using technical processes, methods, or knowledge.†. Technology in the classroom started way back in the early 1980’s. Classrooms are changing every day, with the never-ending improvements of technology. Technology today is playing a large role in students’ lives, from the elementary rooms, to full computer labs. Technology hasn’t always been the technology weRead MoreTechnology And Its Impact On The Classroom Essay3638 Words   |  15 Pagesand more advanced beings, has become interwoven with technology, as nearly all aspects of one’s life, whether it being at home, for leisure, at work, or in the educational sector- is entwined with elements of digitality. This notion leads one to see that the participation with technologies can be an essential aspect of one’s progression in this new contemporary society. The emergence and subsequent dominance of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in this digitally mediated world has led to theRead MoreThe Impact Of Technology On The Classroom2018 Words   |  9 PagesThe Significance of Technology in My Classroom The impact on technology in the classroom has opened many new windows for educators. Technology can be used in various ways while working in a classroom, whether that be a first grade classroom or a class of juniors in high school. Technology can help our students widen their knowledge. When planning lessons, it is important that teachers incorporate some types of technology. When technology is used in your lessons, the students will be able to achieveRead MoreImpact Of Technology On The Classroom1921 Words   |  8 PagesTechnology in the classroom is important for teachers, parents, and students alike, because technology use has become a necessary skill for survival in today’s vastly expanding technology driven global economy. Research has shown an increase in student’s success rates when exposed to technology in the classroom. Also technology has opened lines of communication between educators and parents to keep students on track, and help teachers educate better. Since children today have become digital natives;Read MoreThe Impact Of Technology On The Classroom1323 Words   |  6 PagesUpon entering a classroom in the United States the room is typically full of desks and chairs in symmetrical rows, the teacher’s desk is stacked with resources, and a considerable amount of textbooks, papers, and posters are located around the room. Among these objects there may be one or two computers, in some instances smartboards, but overall the influence of technology in the classroom is limited. This scene is practically identical to every other classroom across the country. Although societyRead MoreThe Impact Of Technology On The Classroom1332 Words   |  6 Pageswhich technology is being developed and is becoming a part of our everyday life. One of the largest arguments with the advancing technology is whether or not it’s good for teaching and learning purposes in the classroom. From email to online classes, computers are defiantly manipulating our lives, and can enhance learning in the classroom in various ways. The growing popularity of technology emphasizes the importance for students and administrators to support and encourage computer technology in our

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Implications of Attachment Theory for Different Forms...

The Implications of Attachment Theory for Different Forms of Childcare Developmental psychologists are interested in the study of the individual from conception to old age. One area of particular interest is the significance of parent-child bonding. Attachment can be defined as ‘an enduring bond of affection directed towards a specific individual’ (Santrock, 2001). The nature of the relationship between early attachment and later development is a central issue in developmental psychology and, given the increasing proportion of women with young children that go out to work, of specific interest is the quality of care-giving that infants receive. This paper will firstly describe the essential†¦show more content†¦Although Bowlby was initially influenced by the psychoanalytic tradition, in later years he also became heavily influenced by concepts from ethology and particularly that of imprinting (Lorenz, 1966), whereby the young of many species form early attachments to their parents. He argues that the tendency for the young t o cling to or be ‘imprinted on’ their mothers can be seen in many other animal species and that by keeping the young close to their mothers enables them to survive. In addition Bowlby (1951) felt that there was a critical period in the formation of attachments. He believed that between the age of six months and three years it was essential for children to receive continuous love from a primary caregiver and that prolonged separation between the child and their primary caregiver would not only cause distress but would have serious outcomes for the child. Evidence to support this view of Bowlby’s comes from observations of young children in hospitals. These studies showed that children, when separated from their mothers, exhibited a sequence of behaviour in which distress was initially accompanied by protest, followed by despair and eventually denial and emotional detachment from the mother (James and Joyce Robertson, 1967-73). This behaviour of denial and emotionalShow MoreRelatedAttachment Theory. Madeline Fuller. April 22, 2017. †¢Introduction.1775 Words   |  8 PagesAttachment Theory Madeline Fuller April 22, 2017 †¢ Introduction My initial interest in this theory stems from my meeting of a diverse group of people this last year. As my family’s business ventures into the world of construction, I have had the opportunity to meet many people who come from much different backgrounds than me. Many of these people have known criminal records and/or are registered sex offenders for one reason or another. The more I come to know them, the more I get to hear about theirRead MoreAn Evalution of the Attachment Theory Essay13038 Words   |  53 PagesTHE ATTACHMENT THEORY AN EVALUTION OF THE ATTACHMENT THEORY WHEN WORKING WITH CHILDREN IN CARE Gail Walters Dissertation Social Work BA (HONS) Manchester Metropolitan University Tutor: Pauline Black CONTENTS Pages Abstract Read MoreThemes Of Development : Prenatal6705 Words   |  27 Pages Week One: Themes in Development: Prenatal Physical: Physical development of the human begins at conception when the egg is fertilized by the sperm. Once the ovum is fertilized, the process of mitosis begins, allowing the cells to split and form the human being. Through this process, each parent contributes 23 chromosomes, which are present in every cell of our bodies, and are made up of DNA and genes (Broderick Blewitt, 2015). The genes that we inherit from our parents determine our physicalRead MoreChild Development 0-19 Yrs6074 Words   |  25 Pageschildren develop their social behaviour they are expected to conform to rules that society dictates. Such rules have been given structure through cultural, legal and religious influences. Theories of moral development differ immensely on how moral development occurs and what influences it. In his Phychodynamic theory, Freud (1935) explained that the quality of the relationship with their parents affects the child’s moral understanding whilst internal natural preferences influence the child’s desireRead MoreComputer Use in Early Childhood Education4243 Words   |  17 Pageseducation has reached the stage where it becomes critical that learning programs becomes a global issue. Understanding changes and undertaking practice is fundamental in student learning. The purpose of this article is to increase our perception on the different effects of using computer technology in early childhood setting. In answering the question What is the purpose of education? I started at that time from the observation that man lives in a world of objects which influence him and which heRead Morecorporate social responsibility motivations and country factors3504 Words   |  15 Pageswas to make profits and thrive economically (Friedman 1970), enterprises now have the option to do so and at the same time, contribute meaningfully to society at large. The reasons for a MNE to engage in CSR initiatives are multiple. Stakeholder theory (Donaldson and Preston 1995) can be used as a skeletal framework to understand where demands for CSR arise. Demand derives from two main groups: consumers and stakeholders. Stakeholders of a company include its investors, employees, suppliers andRead MoreFamily Support Resource Services (SSD), Lancaster Essay5657 Words   |  23 Pagesoriginal multi-agency referral the school sent the SSD, the Initial Assessment form, and the Social Worker’s referral to FSRS (Family Support Resource Services. Each referral apparently indicated problems within the family; including younger child Tommy’s challenging behaviour and the parents’ ill health, which was affecting the family’s life. The information indicated there could be attachment, behavioural or possibly medical issues. Chastisement by the father also causedRead MoreThe Impact of National Poverty Eradication Programme (Napep) on Economic Development of Nigeria13910 Words   |  56 PagesNigeria today. Especially, the incidence of poverty is very high among the unemployed, the uneducated women and rural dwellers (Gbosi 2004). In 1980, the poverty level was only 28.1% but by 1996 it had jumped to 66.6%. Having been mindful of the implications to the economy, the government needs to make concerted efforts in order to reduce poverty in the country. This is because a high incidence of poverty is not good for the health of a developing country like Nigeria. A review of the economic historyRead MoreLearning and Social Care Essay examples30870 Words   |  124 Pagesmaterials on the CACHE website will ensure that correct and up-to-date information is provided to learners. All photographs appearing in this handbook have a signed parental release form and are the exclusive proper ty of CACHE. They are protected under the copyright law and can not be reproduced, copied or manipulated in any form. This includes the use of any image or part of an image in individual or group projects and assessment materials. Qualification reference number: CACHE Level 3 Diploma for theRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pages. Organization Theory Challenges and Perspectives John McAuley, Joanne Duberley and Phil Johnson . This book is, to my knowledge, the most comprehensive and reliable guide to organisational theory currently available. What is needed is a text that will give a good idea of the breadth and complexity of this important subject, and this is precisely what McAuley, Duberley and Johnson have provided. They have done some sterling service in bringing together the very diverse strands of work

New Article Reveals the Low Down on Sociology Epidemiology Essay Topics and Why You Must Take Action Today

New Article Reveals the Low Down on Sociology Epidemiology Essay Topics and Why You Must Take Action Today A Startling Fact about Sociology Epidemiology Essay Topics Uncovered A term paper at college can grow to be a very intriguing job, especially when creativity is used. Your sociology essay is going to be delivered in time and can be finished in no more than 8 hours for rush work. In general, no matter which of these amazing sociology paper subjects you select, you're bound to think of a fascinating bit of writing! Be original whilst writing about it. Even the very best writer on earth cannot compose a high-quality academic paper the evening before it's due. This means that you may ask questions whenever you require, you might ask them to write you an essay or paper and they'll do everything quickly and on the maximum level. If you're looking for assistance with your essay then we provide a comprehensive writing service given by fully qualified academics in your area of study. If an individual is interested in the subject of their term paper, then the text is going to have a better quality. If you can hardly make the topic interesting for you, this usually means that you're not well-aware of the matter and you won't have the ability to catch the readers attention. If you aren't sure you can manage this topic, it's OK, we are here in order to provide help. These topics give your students an opportunity to put these essential facets in context. Selecting an intriguing topic is the very first thing which you should do. Cohort studies, also referred to as prospective or longitudinal studies are when a big sample of the populace is followed over a long duration of time to monitor their way of life and exposure to the risks. There are two sorts of analytical study designs. The next step in the procedure is to develop a theory exploring possible explanations depending on the data which has been compiled. Steps and Methods Used in Epidemiology The epidemiological procedure is complex and is composed of many measures. Completely free Epidemiology essay samples are offered on FreeEssayHelp with no payment or registration. Also, it borrows a lot from biology in order to establish a clear understanding of the human diseases in context. Biochemistry is highly associated with epidemiology and contributes to the discipline by giving a dependable methodology together with interpretation of the chemical tests conducted to serve as a foundation for diagnosis and the administration of treatment (Gordis, 2014). Introducing Sociology Epidemiology Essay Topics Durkheim states there is an impulse to accepts rules that are beneficial for others in addition to ourselves. To start, it's helpful to check at sociology in conditions of its subject matter, its approach, and a number of the classical works that have shaped the discipline. Organic solidarity is the opposite since it is about modern and elaborate societies. Attempt to reveal the effect of cultural norms and politics on understandings inside this f ield. Too many details sometimes, you might encounter topics which consist of an excessive amount of info. Frequency about 6 posts each week. Frequency about 3 posts each week. Frequency about 5 posts each week. Top Sociology Epidemiology Essay Topics Secrets Take great notes and remember sociology is all about concepts. It's really difficult to choose what you would like to write about, as sociology studies a great deal of aspects and has plenty of topics to discuss, however we might provide you with a number of the topics to decide to write about in your research paper on sociology. As is true with several disciplines, it's contested and there's no generally accepted definition of what constitutes sociology. Sociology is a science that's deeply involved with numerous facets of human beings. Below you'll find a reach of general topic suggestions for your sociology essay. If you are interested in an essay that will acquire maximum credits, that isn't an issue either with them. You must know how you start your essays and the way you draw conclusions. If you would like to learn how to write great essays on sociology, just take the subsequent steps. The Pain of Sociology Epidemiology Essay Topics The epidemiological triad can be placed on the elderly population in connection with influenza. Ecological studies compare studies of a specific disease in various communities to attempt to ascertain the reason. There are two major kinds of Epidemiology. In regard to elderly patients and influenza, the degree of prevention can easily be demonstrated. The aim of the secondary prevention level is to limit the harshness of disease and minimize adverse outcomes. Principal prevention includes attempting to continue to keep people healthy and free from disease like immunization and encouragement of healthful lifestyles. Tertiary prevention involves actions in the event the disease has gotten very severe. Study the subsequent groups that have the exact same belief and their influence on the society either inside this modern age or before. Family is a little society. Society plays a significant part in moulding our characters and personalities.

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Unit Guide Essay Example

Unit Guide Essay List of changes since first version was published Learning Outcomes Graduate Capabilities Discipline Specific Knowledge and Skills Critical, Analytical and Integrative Thinking Creative and Innovative Effective Communication Engaged and Ethical Local and Global citizens Capable of Professional and Personal Judgement and Initiative Problem Solving and Research Capability 4 5 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 Assessment Tasks Group Presentation Written Assignments Class participation 10 10 11 12 Unit Schedule Delivery and Resources Policies and Procedures Student Support Student Enquiry Service Equity Support IT Help 14 18 22 2 22 22 22 Page 2 of 22 General Information Convenor and teaching staff Unit Convenor: Shirley Chan Email: shirley. [emailprotected] edu. au Credit Points 3 Prerequisites CHN209 or permission of Executive Dean of Faculty Corequisites N/A Co-badged status N/A. Unit Description This course focuses on some central topics in the field of Chinese history. Such topics may include a parti cular historical period or event, a school of thought, particular philosophical or historiographical texts, or issues relating to the process of history making itself, that helped to shape the socio-cultural spheres of China’s existence.Students will read and analyse sources in Chinese and English relevant the specific topics. A level of Chinese approximately equal to HSC for Background Speakers is required as class discussions will be mainly in Chinese. Page 3 of 22 List of changes since first version was published Date 13/07/12 30/01/12 30/01/12 Change The Description was updated. The Description was updated. The Description was updated. Page 4 of 22 Learning Outcomes At the end of this unit students will have developed the following skills: 1. To appreciate the long and dynamic Chinese history and culture. 2.To improve understanding of the central issues of Chinese history, from historiorgraphical and archaeological sources. 3. To gain familiarity and facility with concept s, themes and theoretical perspectives on Chinese history and Chinese historiography. 4. To demonstrate capacity for analytical and critical thinking as well as appreciation of, and respect for cultural diversities 5. To engage in independent and reflective learning through assessing and responding to ideas 6. To develop an ability to work with and collaborate with others effectively and communicate findings to other fellow studentsPage 5 of 22 Graduate Capabilities This unit provides opportunities to develop in the graduate capabilities in the following ways: Discipline Specific Knowledge and Skills Our graduates will take with them the intellectual development, depth and breadth of knowledge, scholarly understanding, and specific subject content in their chosen fields to make them competent and confident in their subject or profession. They will be able to demonstrate, where relevant, professional technical competence and meet professional standards.They will be able to articulate the structure of knowledge of their discipline, be able to adapt discipline-specific knowledge to novel situations, and be able to contribute from their discipline to inter-disciplinary solutions to problems. This graduate capability is supported by: Learning Outcome Learning Outcome Learning Outcome Learning Outcome Assessment Task Assessment Task Assessment Task Class participation and attendance 2 Written Assignments (30% each) To improve understanding of the central issues of Chinese history, from historiorgraphical and archaeological sources.To gain familiarity and facility with concepts, themes and theoretical perspectives on Chinese history and Chinese historiography. To demonstrate capacity for analytical and critical thinking as well as appreciation of, and respect for cultural diversities Group Presentation To appreciate the long and dynamic Chinese history and culture. Critical, Analytical and Integrative Thinking We want our graduates to be capable of reasoning, questio ning and analysing, and to integrate and synthesise learning and knowledge from a range of sources and environments; to be able to critique Page 6 of 22 onstraints, assumptions and limitations; to be able to think independently and systemically in relation to scholarly activity, in the workplace, and in the world. We want them to have a level of scientific and information technology literacy. This graduate capability is supported by: Assessment Task Assessment Task Assessment Task Group Presentation 2 Written Assignments (30% each) Class participation and attendance Creative and Innovative Our graduates will also be capable of creative thinking and of creating knowledge.They will be imaginative and open to experience and capable of innovation at work and in the community. We want them to be engaged in applying their critical, creative thinking. This graduate capability is supported by: Assessment Task Assessment Task Assessment Task Group Presentation 2 Written Assignments (30% each ) Class participation and attendance Effective Communication We want to develop in our students the ability to communicate and convey their views in forms effective with different audiences.We want our graduates to take with them the capability to read, listen, question, gather and evaluate information resources in a variety of formats, assess, write clearly, speak effectively, and to use visual communication and communication technologies as appropriate. This graduate capability is supported by: Assessment Task Assessment Task Group Presentation 2 Written Assignments (30% each) Page 7 of 22 Assessment Task Class participation and attendance Engaged and Ethical Local and Global citizens As local citizens our graduates will be aware of indigenous perspectives and of the nations historical context.They will be engaged with the challenges of contemporary society and with knowledge and ideas. We want our graduates to have respect for diversity, to be open-minded, sensitive to others and inclusive, and to be open to other cultures and perspectives: they should have a level of cultural literacy. Our graduates should be aware of disadvantage and social justice, and be willing to participate to help create a wiser and better society. This graduate capability is supported by: Assessment Task Assessment Task Assessment Task Group Presentation 2 Written Assignments (30% each) Class participation and attendanceCapable of Professional and Personal Judgement and Initiative We want our graduates to have emotional intelligence and sound interpersonal skills and to demonstrate discernment and common sense in their professional and personal judgement. They will exercise initiative as needed. They will be capable of risk assessment, and be able to handle ambiguity and complexity, enabling them to be adaptable in diverse and changing environments. This graduate capability is supported by: Assessment Task Assessment Task Assessment Task Group Presentation 2 Written Assignments (30 % each) Class participation and attendanceProblem Solving and Research Capability Our graduates should be capable of researching; of analysing, and interpreting and assessing data and information in various forms; of drawing connections across fields of knowledge; and they should be able to relate their knowledge to complex situations at work or in the world, in order to diagnose and Page 8 of 22 solve problems. We want them to have the confidence to take the initiative in doing so, within an awareness of their own limitations. This graduate capability is supported by: Assessment Task Assessment Task Group Presentation 2 Written Assignments (30% each) Page 9 of 22Assessment Tasks Task Weight Due Date Linked Learning Outcomes Group Presentation 20% one week in Week 3-13 Written Assignments 60% Weeks 7 and 12 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 2 Written Assignments (30% each) Class participation 20% Every week in class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8 Class participation and attendance 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Linked Graduate Capabilities 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 Group Presentation Brief Description Group Presentation Due Date: one week in Week 3-13 Weight: 20% There will be one group (2 people) presentation. In the beginning of the semester, you will be asked to choose a tutorial topic.You are expected to lead a discussion on your chosen topic for that week. Your oral presentation is expected to be 6-7 minutes in length (no more than 4 min each person). You have to finish your presentation within the time limit or marks will be deducted. The group project should reflect the collective efforts of every member of your group. You should be prepared that the rest of the class will raise questions. You will need to prepare a 2 page report which needs to be handed in. In preparing to lead discussion, you may wish to consider the following questions: 1)What are the readings about? )What are the main points being argued? 3)What evidence is marshalled to support the author’s arg ument? 4)Do you agree/disagree with the arguments put forward in the readings? Page 10 of 22 5)What did you find most interesting about the topic or the reading? 6)How does this topic/discussion contribute to your understanding/knowledge of Chinese culture and society? Written Assignments Due Date: Weeks 7 and 12 Weight: 60% Students will submit two written assignments, one in Chinese and one in English on a chosen topic which needs to be approved by the convenor. Details will be posted in Blackboard.These assignments should be your own original work. Plagiarism is not acceptable (For further information and advice, see www. student. mq. edu. au/plagiarism). You marks will be determined by but not limited to: a) Grasp of the task and focus. Are you really answering the question(s)? Is there a well-defined framework or scope of argumentation? b) Knowledge of content and research. For example, is there a well-developed argument/critique? Does the essay re? ect a clear insightful knowl edge of the topic in a clear and critical analysis? Does the written work re? ect a substantial and skilful research e? rt? The essay may incorporate text materials linked together with your own commentary and conclusions. This will involve research activities such as locating materials, books and journal articles. c) Creativity and judgement. Does the essay show good judgement in the selection or arrangement of materials? Is there an evidence to support your argument/thesis? d) Communication and presentation. Does the work show a good job of the technical aspects of writing an essay? What will be assessed here also include such matters as grammar, punctuations, spelling, presentation of source citations, etc. ) Referencing and ethical use of materials. All cited works need to be properly acknowledged. Is referencing consistent and precise? Required and recommended resources Readings in research and translation methodologies, see also: Page 11 of 22 Writing a Research Paper An excel lent guide from Purdue University http://owl. english. purdue. edu/owl/resource/658/03/ There are many more guides available online as well as in the library. Students will only be granted extensions/special consideration with valid reasons (eg. serious and unavoidable disruption from completing any unit requirements in accordance with their ability. ) Work that is submitted late will be subjected to an assessment penalty if an extension has not been granted. Even where an extension has been given, a penalty may still be imposed if fairness to other students requires this. The general guideline is that 5% will be deducted for the first day and 2% for each day in subsequent days. Class participation Due Date: Every week in class Weight: 20% Class attendance and participation in discussion is required.Participation will be marked on attendance, willingness to participate in class discussion, preparation and performance of reading and responding to questions. Students are expected to b e well prepared in order to participate in class discussion – this will ensure good use of class time as well as improving your learning skills and sharing your knowledge with others. Class attendance and participation is expected and will be part of the assessment. This means you not only come and sign in the class but come well prepared and participate in class discussion.You need to read the assigned reading material and think about the topics and share your thought with others. Your marks for class attendance and performance will be determined by a) Whether you attend class regularly or not; Page 12 of 22 b) How much effort you have taken to prepare for the class; c) How actively you participate in class discussion; and d) How helpful your comments are on the work of our fellow students. Page 13 of 22 Unit Schedule Lecture Tutorial readings /discussions Assessment Week 1 Introduction to the unit Meet your peers and introduce yourself; choosing a presentation topicThe Stud y of Chinese History: Retrospect and Prospect Week 2 Early Chinese Historical Works Yu in Kao, pp. 7-26; or Yu Yingshi, pp. 1-20. Class participation/discussion (The Study of Chinese History: Retrospect and Prospect) Week 3 Archaeology and History Burton in Kao, pp. 35-48. Class participation/discussion (Early Chinese Historical Works) Week 4 Palaeography, Philology and History Li, pp. 47-80. Class participation/discussion (Archaeology ; History) Week Page 14 of 22 Class 5 The Various Medium of Historical Writings I Li, pp. 81-156. participation/discussion (Palaeography, Philology and History)Week 6 The Various Medium of Historical Writings II Li, pp. 157-234. Class participation/discussion (The Various Medium of Historical Writings I) Week 7 Myth, History, Cultural Values, Social Tensions Li, pp. 234-264. Class participation/discussion Assignment 1 due today (The Various Medium of Historical Writings II) Week 8 Power of Writing http://www. east-asianhistory. net/textbooks/PMChina/c h12. htm Class participation/discussion (Myth, History, Cultural Values, Social Tensions) Page 15 of 22 Week 9 History and Writing the State Lewis, pp. 1-11. Class participation/discussion Power of Writing) Week 10 History and Writing the Masters Lewis, pp. 13-48. Class participation/discussion (History and Writing the State) Week 11 Writing the Past Lewis, pp. 53-98. Class participation/discussion (History and Writing the Masters) Week 12 The Political History of Writing Lewis, pp. 195-240. Class participation/discussion Assignment 2 due today (Writing the Past) Week 13 Revision Feedback/evaluation Lewis, pp. 287-307. Class participation/discussion (The Political History of Writing) Page 16 of 22 Page 17 of 22 Delivery and Resources Recommended Texts and/or MaterialsChang, K. C. The Formation of Chinese Civilization: an Archaeological Perspective. Yale University Press. 1988. Ebrey, Patricia, Buckley. Cambridge Illustrated History of China. (2 nd ed). Cambridge University Press. 20 10. (Available in the Co-op bookshop) Elman, Benjamin ; Kern, Martin (eds). Statecraft and Classical Learning: The Rituals of Zhou in East Asian History (Studies in the History of Chinese Texts). Brill Academic Publishing. 2009. Hsu, C. Y. Ancient China in Transition: An Analysis of Social Mobility 722-222 B. C. Stanford University Press. 1965. Kao, George.The Translation of Things Past: Chinese History and Historiography. Hong Kong: the Chinese University Press. 1982. Lewis, Mark, Edward. Writing and Authority in Early China (SUNY Series in Chinese Philosophy and Culture). State University of New York Press. 2007. Li Xueqin ; Guo Zhikun. . Shanghai: Shanghai Keji Jiaoyu. 2002. Page 18 of 22 Pine, Yuri. Envisioning Eternal Empire: Chinese Political Thought of the Warring States Era. University of Hawaii Press. 2009. Puett, Michael J. To Become a God: Cosmology, Sacrifice, and Self-Divinization in Early China (HarvardYenching Institute Monograph) Harvard University Asia Centre. 004. Schwartz, Benjamin. I. The World of Thought in Ancient China. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. 1985. Schuberg, David. A Patterned Past: Form and Thought in Early Chinese Historiography (Harvard East Asian Monographs). Harvard University Asia Centre. 2002. Wang, Aihe. Cosmology and Political Culture in Early China (Cambridge Studies in Chinese History, Literature and Institutions). Cambridge University Press. 2000. . . . 1985. Zhao Yi bookshop) , Zhao Yifeng (eds). Ancient Chinese History. Beijing: Higher Education Press. 2010. (Available in the Co-opYou will find some of the URL links containing materials on Chinese history, archaeology, art, culture extremely handy. Among these are: http://www. chinapage. com/ http://www. princeton. edu/~classbib/ Page 19 of 22 This pointer will bring up the introduction page of the Classical Chinese Historiography for Chinese History. Scroll down to get to the table of contents. The display includes full-style Chinese characters (fanti z i), but you will only be able to display them if the computer you are using is equipped with Chinese script. Otherwise they will display as gobbledy-gook, but this does not matter to the rest of the bibliography.The most useful section for this course is section 9: Select Bibliography of Chinese Classics and Literature in Translation With Recent Related Histories; Section 10: Selected English Bibliography For Chinese Civilization: A Brief Historical Survey. You can reach this by using the contents page. Unit Webpage and Technology Used and Required Students should check iLearn regularly under the unit concerned, for announcements and updated information. Library Databases Students should make good use of the library databases for scholarly articles, books and other sources of information, which is an essential part of learning and research skills. ttp://www. library. mq. edu. au/ Please note that attendance at all classes is compulsory. This applies particularly to assessments. Stud ents will only be granted extensions/special consideration with valid reasons (eg. , serious and unavoidable disruption from completing any unit requirements in accordance with their ability. ) Work that is submitted late will be subjected to an assessment penalty if an extension has not been granted. Even where an extension has been given, a penalty may still be imposed if fairness to other students requires this.The general guideline is that 5% will be deducted for the first day and 2% for each day in subsequent days. Special Consideration Policy Page 20 of 22 http://www. mq. edu. au/policy/docs/special_consideration/policy. html Applying for Special Consideration Students applying for Special Consideration circumstances of three (3) consecutive days duration, within a study period, and/or prevent completion of a formal examination must submit an on-line application with the Faculty of Arts. For an application to be valid, it must include a completed Application for Special Consid eration form and all supporting documentation.The on-line Special Consideration application is found at:http://www. arts. mq. edu. au/current_students/undergraduate/admin_central/special_consideration. Page 21 of 22 Policies and Procedures Macquarie University policies and procedures are accessible from Policy Central. You may find of particular interest those which can be found in the Learning and Teaching category. Student Support Macquarie University provides a range of Academic Student Support Services. Details of these services can be accessed at: http://www. mq. edu. au/currentstudents/. Student Enquiry ServiceDetails of these services can be accessed at http://www. student. mq. edu. au/ses/. Equity Support Students with a disability are encouraged to contact the Disability Support Unit who can provide appropriate help with any issues that arise during their studies. IT Help If you wish to receive IT help, we would be glad to assist you at http://informatics. mq. edu. au/help/ . When using the universitys IT, you must adhere to the Acceptable Use Policy. The policy applies to all who connect to the MQ network including students and it outlines what can be done. Page 22 of 22 Unit Guide Essay Example Unit Guide Essay List of changes since first version was published Learning Outcomes Graduate Capabilities Discipline Specific Knowledge and Skills Critical, Analytical and Integrative Thinking Creative and Innovative Effective Communication Engaged and Ethical Local and Global citizens Capable of Professional and Personal Judgement and Initiative Problem Solving and Research Capability 4 5 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 Assessment Tasks Group Presentation Written Assignments Class participation 10 10 11 12 Unit Schedule Delivery and Resources Policies and Procedures Student Support Student Enquiry Service Equity Support IT Help 14 18 22 2 22 22 22 Page 2 of 22 General Information Convenor and teaching staff Unit Convenor: Shirley Chan Email: shirley. [emailprotected] edu. au Credit Points 3 Prerequisites CHN209 or permission of Executive Dean of Faculty Corequisites N/A Co-badged status N/A. Unit Description This course focuses on some central topics in the field of Chinese history. Such topics may include a parti cular historical period or event, a school of thought, particular philosophical or historiographical texts, or issues relating to the process of history making itself, that helped to shape the socio-cultural spheres of China’s existence.Students will read and analyse sources in Chinese and English relevant the specific topics. A level of Chinese approximately equal to HSC for Background Speakers is required as class discussions will be mainly in Chinese. Page 3 of 22 List of changes since first version was published Date 13/07/12 30/01/12 30/01/12 Change The Description was updated. The Description was updated. The Description was updated. Page 4 of 22 Learning Outcomes At the end of this unit students will have developed the following skills: 1. To appreciate the long and dynamic Chinese history and culture. 2.To improve understanding of the central issues of Chinese history, from historiorgraphical and archaeological sources. 3. To gain familiarity and facility with concept s, themes and theoretical perspectives on Chinese history and Chinese historiography. 4. To demonstrate capacity for analytical and critical thinking as well as appreciation of, and respect for cultural diversities 5. To engage in independent and reflective learning through assessing and responding to ideas 6. To develop an ability to work with and collaborate with others effectively and communicate findings to other fellow studentsPage 5 of 22 Graduate Capabilities This unit provides opportunities to develop in the graduate capabilities in the following ways: Discipline Specific Knowledge and Skills Our graduates will take with them the intellectual development, depth and breadth of knowledge, scholarly understanding, and specific subject content in their chosen fields to make them competent and confident in their subject or profession. They will be able to demonstrate, where relevant, professional technical competence and meet professional standards.They will be able to articulate the structure of knowledge of their discipline, be able to adapt discipline-specific knowledge to novel situations, and be able to contribute from their discipline to inter-disciplinary solutions to problems. This graduate capability is supported by: Learning Outcome Learning Outcome Learning Outcome Learning Outcome Assessment Task Assessment Task Assessment Task Class participation and attendance 2 Written Assignments (30% each) To improve understanding of the central issues of Chinese history, from historiorgraphical and archaeological sources.To gain familiarity and facility with concepts, themes and theoretical perspectives on Chinese history and Chinese historiography. To demonstrate capacity for analytical and critical thinking as well as appreciation of, and respect for cultural diversities Group Presentation To appreciate the long and dynamic Chinese history and culture. Critical, Analytical and Integrative Thinking We want our graduates to be capable of reasoning, questio ning and analysing, and to integrate and synthesise learning and knowledge from a range of sources and environments; to be able to critique Page 6 of 22 onstraints, assumptions and limitations; to be able to think independently and systemically in relation to scholarly activity, in the workplace, and in the world. We want them to have a level of scientific and information technology literacy. This graduate capability is supported by: Assessment Task Assessment Task Assessment Task Group Presentation 2 Written Assignments (30% each) Class participation and attendance Creative and Innovative Our graduates will also be capable of creative thinking and of creating knowledge.They will be imaginative and open to experience and capable of innovation at work and in the community. We want them to be engaged in applying their critical, creative thinking. This graduate capability is supported by: Assessment Task Assessment Task Assessment Task Group Presentation 2 Written Assignments (30% each ) Class participation and attendance Effective Communication We want to develop in our students the ability to communicate and convey their views in forms effective with different audiences.We want our graduates to take with them the capability to read, listen, question, gather and evaluate information resources in a variety of formats, assess, write clearly, speak effectively, and to use visual communication and communication technologies as appropriate. This graduate capability is supported by: Assessment Task Assessment Task Group Presentation 2 Written Assignments (30% each) Page 7 of 22 Assessment Task Class participation and attendance Engaged and Ethical Local and Global citizens As local citizens our graduates will be aware of indigenous perspectives and of the nations historical context.They will be engaged with the challenges of contemporary society and with knowledge and ideas. We want our graduates to have respect for diversity, to be open-minded, sensitive to others and inclusive, and to be open to other cultures and perspectives: they should have a level of cultural literacy. Our graduates should be aware of disadvantage and social justice, and be willing to participate to help create a wiser and better society. This graduate capability is supported by: Assessment Task Assessment Task Assessment Task Group Presentation 2 Written Assignments (30% each) Class participation and attendanceCapable of Professional and Personal Judgement and Initiative We want our graduates to have emotional intelligence and sound interpersonal skills and to demonstrate discernment and common sense in their professional and personal judgement. They will exercise initiative as needed. They will be capable of risk assessment, and be able to handle ambiguity and complexity, enabling them to be adaptable in diverse and changing environments. This graduate capability is supported by: Assessment Task Assessment Task Assessment Task Group Presentation 2 Written Assignments (30 % each) Class participation and attendanceProblem Solving and Research Capability Our graduates should be capable of researching; of analysing, and interpreting and assessing data and information in various forms; of drawing connections across fields of knowledge; and they should be able to relate their knowledge to complex situations at work or in the world, in order to diagnose and Page 8 of 22 solve problems. We want them to have the confidence to take the initiative in doing so, within an awareness of their own limitations. This graduate capability is supported by: Assessment Task Assessment Task Group Presentation 2 Written Assignments (30% each) Page 9 of 22Assessment Tasks Task Weight Due Date Linked Learning Outcomes Group Presentation 20% one week in Week 3-13 Written Assignments 60% Weeks 7 and 12 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 2 Written Assignments (30% each) Class participation 20% Every week in class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8 Class participation and attendance 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Linked Graduate Capabilities 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 Group Presentation Brief Description Group Presentation Due Date: one week in Week 3-13 Weight: 20% There will be one group (2 people) presentation. In the beginning of the semester, you will be asked to choose a tutorial topic.You are expected to lead a discussion on your chosen topic for that week. Your oral presentation is expected to be 6-7 minutes in length (no more than 4 min each person). You have to finish your presentation within the time limit or marks will be deducted. The group project should reflect the collective efforts of every member of your group. You should be prepared that the rest of the class will raise questions. You will need to prepare a 2 page report which needs to be handed in. In preparing to lead discussion, you may wish to consider the following questions: 1)What are the readings about? )What are the main points being argued? 3)What evidence is marshalled to support the author’s arg ument? 4)Do you agree/disagree with the arguments put forward in the readings? Page 10 of 22 5)What did you find most interesting about the topic or the reading? 6)How does this topic/discussion contribute to your understanding/knowledge of Chinese culture and society? Written Assignments Due Date: Weeks 7 and 12 Weight: 60% Students will submit two written assignments, one in Chinese and one in English on a chosen topic which needs to be approved by the convenor. Details will be posted in Blackboard.These assignments should be your own original work. Plagiarism is not acceptable (For further information and advice, see www. student. mq. edu. au/plagiarism). You marks will be determined by but not limited to: a) Grasp of the task and focus. Are you really answering the question(s)? Is there a well-defined framework or scope of argumentation? b) Knowledge of content and research. For example, is there a well-developed argument/critique? Does the essay re? ect a clear insightful knowl edge of the topic in a clear and critical analysis? Does the written work re? ect a substantial and skilful research e? rt? The essay may incorporate text materials linked together with your own commentary and conclusions. This will involve research activities such as locating materials, books and journal articles. c) Creativity and judgement. Does the essay show good judgement in the selection or arrangement of materials? Is there an evidence to support your argument/thesis? d) Communication and presentation. Does the work show a good job of the technical aspects of writing an essay? What will be assessed here also include such matters as grammar, punctuations, spelling, presentation of source citations, etc. ) Referencing and ethical use of materials. All cited works need to be properly acknowledged. Is referencing consistent and precise? Required and recommended resources Readings in research and translation methodologies, see also: Page 11 of 22 Writing a Research Paper An excel lent guide from Purdue University http://owl. english. purdue. edu/owl/resource/658/03/ There are many more guides available online as well as in the library. Students will only be granted extensions/special consideration with valid reasons (eg. serious and unavoidable disruption from completing any unit requirements in accordance with their ability. ) Work that is submitted late will be subjected to an assessment penalty if an extension has not been granted. Even where an extension has been given, a penalty may still be imposed if fairness to other students requires this. The general guideline is that 5% will be deducted for the first day and 2% for each day in subsequent days. Class participation Due Date: Every week in class Weight: 20% Class attendance and participation in discussion is required.Participation will be marked on attendance, willingness to participate in class discussion, preparation and performance of reading and responding to questions. Students are expected to b e well prepared in order to participate in class discussion – this will ensure good use of class time as well as improving your learning skills and sharing your knowledge with others. Class attendance and participation is expected and will be part of the assessment. This means you not only come and sign in the class but come well prepared and participate in class discussion.You need to read the assigned reading material and think about the topics and share your thought with others. Your marks for class attendance and performance will be determined by a) Whether you attend class regularly or not; Page 12 of 22 b) How much effort you have taken to prepare for the class; c) How actively you participate in class discussion; and d) How helpful your comments are on the work of our fellow students. Page 13 of 22 Unit Schedule Lecture Tutorial readings /discussions Assessment Week 1 Introduction to the unit Meet your peers and introduce yourself; choosing a presentation topicThe Stud y of Chinese History: Retrospect and Prospect Week 2 Early Chinese Historical Works Yu in Kao, pp. 7-26; or Yu Yingshi, pp. 1-20. Class participation/discussion (The Study of Chinese History: Retrospect and Prospect) Week 3 Archaeology and History Burton in Kao, pp. 35-48. Class participation/discussion (Early Chinese Historical Works) Week 4 Palaeography, Philology and History Li, pp. 47-80. Class participation/discussion (Archaeology ; History) Week Page 14 of 22 Class 5 The Various Medium of Historical Writings I Li, pp. 81-156. participation/discussion (Palaeography, Philology and History)Week 6 The Various Medium of Historical Writings II Li, pp. 157-234. Class participation/discussion (The Various Medium of Historical Writings I) Week 7 Myth, History, Cultural Values, Social Tensions Li, pp. 234-264. Class participation/discussion Assignment 1 due today (The Various Medium of Historical Writings II) Week 8 Power of Writing http://www. east-asianhistory. net/textbooks/PMChina/c h12. htm Class participation/discussion (Myth, History, Cultural Values, Social Tensions) Page 15 of 22 Week 9 History and Writing the State Lewis, pp. 1-11. Class participation/discussion Power of Writing) Week 10 History and Writing the Masters Lewis, pp. 13-48. Class participation/discussion (History and Writing the State) Week 11 Writing the Past Lewis, pp. 53-98. Class participation/discussion (History and Writing the Masters) Week 12 The Political History of Writing Lewis, pp. 195-240. Class participation/discussion Assignment 2 due today (Writing the Past) Week 13 Revision Feedback/evaluation Lewis, pp. 287-307. Class participation/discussion (The Political History of Writing) Page 16 of 22 Page 17 of 22 Delivery and Resources Recommended Texts and/or MaterialsChang, K. C. The Formation of Chinese Civilization: an Archaeological Perspective. Yale University Press. 1988. Ebrey, Patricia, Buckley. Cambridge Illustrated History of China. (2 nd ed). Cambridge University Press. 20 10. (Available in the Co-op bookshop) Elman, Benjamin ; Kern, Martin (eds). Statecraft and Classical Learning: The Rituals of Zhou in East Asian History (Studies in the History of Chinese Texts). Brill Academic Publishing. 2009. Hsu, C. Y. Ancient China in Transition: An Analysis of Social Mobility 722-222 B. C. Stanford University Press. 1965. Kao, George.The Translation of Things Past: Chinese History and Historiography. Hong Kong: the Chinese University Press. 1982. Lewis, Mark, Edward. Writing and Authority in Early China (SUNY Series in Chinese Philosophy and Culture). State University of New York Press. 2007. Li Xueqin ; Guo Zhikun. . Shanghai: Shanghai Keji Jiaoyu. 2002. Page 18 of 22 Pine, Yuri. Envisioning Eternal Empire: Chinese Political Thought of the Warring States Era. University of Hawaii Press. 2009. Puett, Michael J. To Become a God: Cosmology, Sacrifice, and Self-Divinization in Early China (HarvardYenching Institute Monograph) Harvard University Asia Centre. 004. Schwartz, Benjamin. I. The World of Thought in Ancient China. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. 1985. Schuberg, David. A Patterned Past: Form and Thought in Early Chinese Historiography (Harvard East Asian Monographs). Harvard University Asia Centre. 2002. Wang, Aihe. Cosmology and Political Culture in Early China (Cambridge Studies in Chinese History, Literature and Institutions). Cambridge University Press. 2000. . . . 1985. Zhao Yi bookshop) , Zhao Yifeng (eds). Ancient Chinese History. Beijing: Higher Education Press. 2010. (Available in the Co-opYou will find some of the URL links containing materials on Chinese history, archaeology, art, culture extremely handy. Among these are: http://www. chinapage. com/ http://www. princeton. edu/~classbib/ Page 19 of 22 This pointer will bring up the introduction page of the Classical Chinese Historiography for Chinese History. Scroll down to get to the table of contents. The display includes full-style Chinese characters (fanti z i), but you will only be able to display them if the computer you are using is equipped with Chinese script. Otherwise they will display as gobbledy-gook, but this does not matter to the rest of the bibliography.The most useful section for this course is section 9: Select Bibliography of Chinese Classics and Literature in Translation With Recent Related Histories; Section 10: Selected English Bibliography For Chinese Civilization: A Brief Historical Survey. You can reach this by using the contents page. Unit Webpage and Technology Used and Required Students should check iLearn regularly under the unit concerned, for announcements and updated information. Library Databases Students should make good use of the library databases for scholarly articles, books and other sources of information, which is an essential part of learning and research skills. ttp://www. library. mq. edu. au/ Please note that attendance at all classes is compulsory. This applies particularly to assessments. Stud ents will only be granted extensions/special consideration with valid reasons (eg. , serious and unavoidable disruption from completing any unit requirements in accordance with their ability. ) Work that is submitted late will be subjected to an assessment penalty if an extension has not been granted. Even where an extension has been given, a penalty may still be imposed if fairness to other students requires this.The general guideline is that 5% will be deducted for the first day and 2% for each day in subsequent days. Special Consideration Policy Page 20 of 22 http://www. mq. edu. au/policy/docs/special_consideration/policy. html Applying for Special Consideration Students applying for Special Consideration circumstances of three (3) consecutive days duration, within a study period, and/or prevent completion of a formal examination must submit an on-line application with the Faculty of Arts. For an application to be valid, it must include a completed Application for Special Consid eration form and all supporting documentation.The on-line Special Consideration application is found at:http://www. arts. mq. edu. au/current_students/undergraduate/admin_central/special_consideration. Page 21 of 22 Policies and Procedures Macquarie University policies and procedures are accessible from Policy Central. You may find of particular interest those which can be found in the Learning and Teaching category. Student Support Macquarie University provides a range of Academic Student Support Services. Details of these services can be accessed at: http://www. mq. edu. au/currentstudents/. Student Enquiry ServiceDetails of these services can be accessed at http://www. student. mq. edu. au/ses/. Equity Support Students with a disability are encouraged to contact the Disability Support Unit who can provide appropriate help with any issues that arise during their studies. IT Help If you wish to receive IT help, we would be glad to assist you at http://informatics. mq. edu. au/help/ . When using the universitys IT, you must adhere to the Acceptable Use Policy. The policy applies to all who connect to the MQ network including students and it outlines what can be done. Page 22 of 22

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

How The NACW Fought Sexism and Racism in Jim Crow Era

How The NACW Fought Sexism and Racism in Jim Crow Era The National Association of Colored Women was established in July of 1896  after Southern journalist, James Jacks referred to African American women as â€Å"prostitutes, thieves and liars.† African American writer and suffragette, Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin believed that the best way to respond to racist and sexist attacks was through social-political activism. Arguing that developing positive images of African American womanhood was important to countering racist attacks, Ruffin said, Too long have we been silent under unjust and unholy charges; we cannot expect to have them removed until we disprove them through ourselves. With the help of other notable African American women, Ruffin initiated the merger of several African American women’s clubs including the National League of Colored Women and the National Federation of Afro-American Women to form the first African American national organization. The organizations name was changed in 1957 to the National Association of Colored Womens Clubs (NACWC). Notable Members Mary Church Terrell: first president of the NACWIda B. Wells-Barnett: publisher and journalistMary McLeod Bethune: educator, social leader and eighth president of NACWFrances Ellen Watkins Harper: feminist and poetMargaret Murray Washington: educator and served as the fifth president of the NACW Mission The NACW’s national motto, â€Å"Lifting as We Climb,† embodied the goals and initiatives established by the national organization and carried out by its local and regional chapters. On the organizations website, the NACW outlines nine objectives which included developing the economic, moral, religious and social welfare of women and children as well as enforcing the civil and political rights for all American citizens. Uplifting the Race and Providing Social Services One of the NACWs main focuses was developing resources that would help impoverished and disenfranchised African Americans. In 1902, the organizations first president, Mary Church Terrell, argued: Self-preservation demands that [black women] go among the lowly, illiterate, and even vicious, to whom they are bound to ties of race and sex...to reclaim them.   In Terrells first address as president of the NACW, she said, The work which we hope to accomplish can be done better, we believe, by the mothers, wives, daughters, and sisters of our race than by the fathers, husbands, brothers, and sons. Terrell charged members with the task of developing employment training and fair wages for women while establishing kindergarten programs for young children and recreational programs for older children. Suffrage Through various national, regional and local initiatives, the NACW fought for the voting rights of all Americans. Women of the NACW supported womens right to vote through their work on the local and national level. When the 19th Amendment was ratified in 1920, the NACW supported the establishment of citizenship schools. Georgia Nugent, chair of the NACW Executive Committee, told members, the ballot without intelligence in back of it is a menace instead of a blessing and I like to believe that women are accepting their recently granted citizenship with a sense of reverent responsibility. Standing Up To Racial Injustice The NACW vehemently opposed segregation and supported anti-lynching legislation. Using its publication, National Notes, the organization was able to discuss its opposition to racism and discrimination in society with a wider audience. Regional and local chapters of NACW launched various fundraising efforts after the Red Summer of 1919. All chapters  participated in nonviolent protests and boycotts of segregated public facilities. Todays Initiatives Now referred to as the National Association of Colored Womens Clubs (NACWC), the organization boasts regional and local chapters in 36 states. Members of these chapters sponsor various programs including college scholarships, teenage pregnancy,  and AIDS prevention. In 2010, Ebony magazine named the NACWC as one of the top ten non-profit organizations in the United States.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Pronouncing Dour and Other OU Words

Pronouncing Dour and Other OU Words Pronouncing Dour and Other OU Words Pronouncing Dour and Other OU Words By Maeve Maddox A reader asks: How does one pronounce properly the word â€Å"dour†?   Should it rhyme with â€Å"sour† or â€Å"door† or be pronounced something like the whiskey â€Å"Dewar’s† or perhaps â€Å"doer†? Dour is an adjective that came into English from a Scottish word that in turn probably came from the word that gives us durable: durus: â€Å"hard.† A dour person presents a stern, harsh, forbidding exterior. Here are some examples of dour found on the Web and in Wuthering Heights: Never the dour child in his eyes, Eleanor [Roosevelt] was instead his â€Å"own darling little Nell.† Not only did Kierkegaard inherit his fathers melancholy, his sense of guilt and anxiety, and his pietistic emphasis on the dour aspects of Christian faith, but he also inherited his talents for philosophical argument and creative imagination. The social worker had remained silent throughout the conference, with a  dour  expression on  his  face. [Heathcliff] managed to continue work till nine o’clock, and then marched dumb and dour to his chamber. In my early (US) education, I learned to pronounce the vowel sound of dour like the oo in goose: DOOr. This is the only pronunciation given in the OED. The online pronouncing dictionary Howjsay gives a second pronunciation in which the vowel sound is pronounced like the vowel sound in out: DOWr. Merriam-Webster Unabridged (online version) shows the phonetic symbols for the OW pronunciation first, but the audio feature gives the OO pronunciation. According to Charles Elster, (The Big Book of Beastly Mispronunciations), a survey of American sources indicates that the OO pronunciation was the only one in US speech until the 1940s. He speculates that the OW pronunciation developed by false analogy with words like our, hour, flour, sour, scour, and devour. I hesitate to label DOWr â€Å"US pronunciation.† Many US speakers do make dour rhyme with sour, but many others pronounce dour as the English and Scots do. Regional US pronunciation varies widely (and sometimes wildly) when it comes to words spelled with ou. For example, some speakers pronounce tour to rhyme with tore and tourist to rhyme with forest. When I was growing up, the most common American pronunciation of route was ROOT. We even had a popular song about getting our kicks on Route 66 that was sung with the ROOT pronunciation. Nowadays, many (again, not all) American speakers make route rhyme with shout, losing the distinction between the noun route (â€Å"a line of travel†) and the verb rout (â€Å"to put to flight†). Here are a few more ou words grouped according to pronunciation of the vowel sound. Some readers are sure to disagree with the groupings, but here goes anyway. My authorities are the OED, M-W, and Howjsay: OW as in how: foul loud house flour hour sour OO as in you>: cougar louvre tour tourist OR as in for: court mourn O as in toe: moulder moult soul UR as in URN: journal journalist journey schwa (an indeterminate uh sound) moustache Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Spelling category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Farther vs. FurtherRules for Capitalization in TitlesMay Have vs. Might Have

Thursday, February 13, 2020

European Politics in the 16th and 17th Centuries Essay

European Politics in the 16th and 17th Centuries - Essay Example From the Spanish point of view, any resistance that the natives demonstrated to the conversion was a work of none other than the Satan. The Spanish presented the natives with an ultimatum to both adopt Christianity and then swear allegiance to the Spanish crown of Castile. Those who would refuse to do that would then face military action. This occurred as one of the immediate and unfortunate effect of the reformation. The intolerance that developed expressed itself in religious wars and persecution. Albeit the main motive should have been to generate the true spirit of Christ or the fatherhood of God and brotherhood of man, the reformation made millions of people to suffer on the account of religion. The main subjects of the Italian, Spanish and Portuguese monarchs were deliberately forced to remain catholic. Those who refused to convert to catholic suffered death or imprisonment. The main aim behind ‘a Short account of the Destruction of the Indies’ was to inform the King of Spain regarding the gold hoarding and the murders that were occurring in the New World. The reason of the expeditions was chiefly to convert the natives to Christianity and as a result protect them from the eternal damnation. In contrast to this, the Spaniards that were sent did not follow the rules that were given to them. Instead they targeted and killed millions of natives for their gold. A minor percentage of the gold that was hoarded was allocated for the Spanish purse. At this time, Christian missionaries such as Las Casas tried their best in order to bring justice to the land.